AP Human Geography

Hershey High School

Kindermusik

November10

The Kindermusik community is comprised of mothers, fathers, caregivers, and young children from all corners of the Earth. This Enlgish-language-based program uses music and movement to nurture a child’s cognitive, emotional, social, language and physical development. Parents can choose from eight different Kindermusik courses, each geared towards a specific age group ranging from newborn to seven-years-old. The classes are taught by licensed instructors who have endured rigorous training to achieve and promote Kindermusik’s detailed mission. A concept that began in the former West Germany during the 1960s, the Kindermusik program has diffused for decades across the globe with little alteration or prevention, being accepted by over one million families with young children.

Present day Germany, a country with rich musical history, is attributed with the innovation of Kindermusik. In 1968, the then West German government commissioned several doctoral candidates to create a music and movement program for the 5 to 6-year-old age group. The hearth of West Germany provided Kindermusik with an ideal location for diffusion. Initially, this concept (originally known as “Musikalische Fruherziehung,” or “music for the young child”) flourished solely in West Germany. Local community music schools adopted the curriculum for West Germany’s youth. The program was strictly local culture as it was practiced by a homogeneous population in the spatially limited West Germnay. Soon enough, however, the program would diffuse contagiously throughout Western Europe. In 1974, the program was introduced to the United States where it took root quickly and spread throughout the country. Ten years later it was introduced to Canada where a similar effect took place. Since then, Kindermusik has set its international headquarters in Greensboro, North Carolina, where it oversees the operations of over 5,000 educators in 35 countries. Within its 42-year history, Kindermusik has spread it’s principals, and now comodified classes, to six continents - all with humble beginnings in West Germany.

Kindermusik faced various forms of diffusion. Initially, when Kindermusik was simply a program developed by expert music educators and not a comodified curriculum, it diffused contagiously. With publicized success and support from the West German government, the program spread through music schools in West Germany. The program then spread contiguously to neighboring countries in Western Europe. In the 1970s, when the corporation Kindermusik International was instituted and began to publish the Kindermusik curriculum and promote instructor licensing and a range of classes, its diffusion became non-contiguous. The program spread West to North and South America and East as far as Australia. This once local culture was now characterized as popular culture as it continues to be exercised globally by a heterogeneous population. The original concept quickly became comodified as various for-profit-classes were structured for different age groups. Aspiring Kindermusik instructors, essentially child-loving entrepreneurs, could purchase the Kindermusik curriculum along with an instructor’s license. Essentially, the concept spread contagiously through the sub-culture of families with young children. New parents are known to be join forces when raising their young children. Once one family begins using a certain educational toy or innovative class or preschool, it quickly diffuses to associated families. This philosophy can be applied to Kindermusik, where the initial families utilizing the program in West Germany diffused Kindermusik contagiously to families with which they were associated. More recently, Kindermusik International has published stories about mothers who attended Kindermusik classes with their son or daughter and were inspired to start a Kindermusik class of their own. This crafty business operation and swift diffusion helped to make Kindermusik placeless as it is now found all over the world, despite its German title.

“Kindermusik Rocks Video”

In its quientessence, Kindermusik is still Kindermusik. The concept has not changed, nor has the mission of the program. The execution of the program, however, has altered over time. Initially, the raw curriculum was taught at local music schools in West Germany. Over time, the program was adapted in order to compensate for its quick diffusion. The curriculum became uniform, and a “canned” version was sold to instructors, many of whom had no formal music training. These instructors endured official Kindermusik training, however. The authenticity of the program was maintained as its core mission and philosophy were not altered. Also, Kindermusik has faced no obvious prevention in movement. Although the program is universally taught with an English-language-base, this has proven as a positive selling point for parents who want their children exposed to English at a young age. The fact that the program diffused across six continents relatively quickly demonstrates that little opposition has been encountered.

“Follow me to Kindermusik Video”

The Kindermusik program began as an experimental music education program and has become a flourishing international corporation. Its hearth in West Germany allowed for easy contagious diffusion among families with small children. Initially, contiguous diffusion was demonstrated as the program spread across Western Europe; however, the institution of Kindermusik International made the program diffuse non-contiguously across the globe. Its 42-year history has experienced little prevention in movement as families are eager to expose their young children to the curriculum that has maintained its core philosophy since its creation by West German doctoral candidates. Kindermusik serves as a prime example as to how, why, and to what extent culture can expand and change under the right conditions.

Analysis of Homecoming

November10

The first homecoming football game took place at Missouri’s field when they faced the Kansas Jayhawks in 1911. The athletic director, Chester Brewer, is credited with coming up with the idea of homecoming. He invited all of the alumni to “come home” for the game in 1911. Not only did they have a football game, but the day also consisted of a parade and spirit rally with a bonfire. The game in 1911 was the beginning of a long tradition. Throughout this analysis I will discuss the spread, movement, and diffusion of homecoming.

Picture of the first homecoming football game in 1911, against the Missouri tigers and the Kansas jayhawks.

The tradition of homecoming spread very quickly across the United States, and is still happening every year to this day. Homecoming is a form of popular culture because it is widely accepted in “western culture”. Homecoming took roughly 11 years to become fully accepted in the United States. Nearly 10,000 alumni showed up for the game in 1911. Since it was such a big success, the idea quickly spread to colleges all over the country.

Luckily no one stood in the way of this flourishing tradition. It was a success from day one, and everyone seemed to love it. The idea of homecoming was contiguous; however it didn’t happen very fast. In other words, the process of the spreading of homecoming never stopped, at the same time, nothing happened over night. Homecoming has many different aspects to it. For example it is considered to be both material culture and nonmaterial culture. It is material culture because of all the money that is spends, and all the products that are bought. Yet, it is nonmaterial culture because there are many customs and beliefs behind the traditions of homecoming.

Mizzou Tigers LogoHomecoming is a form of expansion diffusion. More specifically it is pegged as contagious diffusion, which in short is the rapid growth of an idea or item. From 1911 to 2010 there have been many small changes during its process of diffusion. For example, somewhere along the way there became a homecoming court. Out of the court a king and queen were picked. Someone also decided to have a student dance the night before. The king and queen are normally picked the night of the dance, and they also make an appearance before the football game starts as well. As far as homecoming goes, there are some examples of assimilation. For instance, immigrants that come into the United States experience this, however the assimilation is typically quick and easy to get used to.

Homecoming is something for all ages to enjoy. The younger generations can take pleasure in the dances and parties, while the older alumni can benefit from being able to come back to the school and reunite with all of their old friends. Not only that, but everyone can relax and watch a nice high school/college football game. It’s something that has been around for nearly a century, and is sure to be here for many years to come. The spread of homecoming has been an interesting one, as well as its diffusion, and we’re certain to see many more adaption’s in following years.

The Rubik’s Cube

November10

Erno Rubik, the inventor of the Rubik's Cube

The Rubik’s Cube was invented by Erno Rubik, a Hungarian sculptor and professor of architecture in 1974. The creation of the cube was somewhat commoditized because originally his plan was to invent a working model to explain three dimensional geometry, but it ended up being sold as one of the most popular children’s toys in history. He got a Hungarian patent in 1975 but the first ‘Magic Cubes’ (later known as the Rubik’s Cube) weren’t released until 1977. Magic Cubes were first sold in Budapest toy shops. In 1979 a deal was signed with Ideal Toys which brought the Magic Cube to the west. The cube made its international introduction in toy fairs in Paris, London, Nuremburg, and New York in February of 1980. The distribution of the cube was put on hold while the cube went under reterritorialization to make it more practical for the west. After this, the first shipment of the new Rubik’s Cube was sent from Hungry to many major cities around the world. Rubik did not receive a U.S. patent until 1983.

In late 1980 the popularity of the cube took off. The shipment of 1 Million that was originally sent proved to be too little, and imitation cubes quickly took off. By the end of 1982 over 100 million cubes were sold and over 50 solution books were on the market. Like all popular fads, the cubes popularity crashed by the end of 1883. In the early 1990’s the cube started to come back, but it was not until the end of the decade that the cube really started to regain popularity. Today over 300 million Rubik’s Cubes have been sold world wide.

The hearth of the Rubik's Cube

Rubik was not the only toy maker with this idea. Larry Nicolas patented a similar toy held together with magnets that rotated in groups like Rubik’s toy. He got at Canadian patent in 1970 and a U.S. patent in 1972, therefore getting his toy two years ahead of Rubik. Nicolas sued Ideal Toy Company in 1982 and in 1984 Ideal Toys lost the patent infringement suit. Ideal Toy Company then appealed the suit in 1886 and it was decided that the 3 by 3 cube was not a copyright infringement on Nicolas’s toy.

The Rubik’s cube is an example of both popular and material culture. The cube first spread by hierarchical diffusion when toy store owners would see the toy at major toy fairs in big cities around the world. As the toys were brought to different countries however, its popularity spread by contagious diffusion and word of mouth. Everyone was interested in trying to solve this mathematical puzzle.

The Rubik’s Cube is a strong example of cultural diffusion. Starting in Hungary and diffusing all around the world, the puzzle quickly became one of the most successful children’s toys of all time.

Tulipmania

November10
Anonymous author from the 17th century

Anonymous author from the 17th century

Tulipmania, the non-material idea of tulip’s selling for extremely high prices in the Netherlands in the 17th century, reached its climax in 1637 when the price of a single tulip sold for more then a skilled workers yearly salary.  Just as quickly as the frenzy over tulips came, the bubble it was riding burst and the prices of tulips plummeted in the Netherlands making it the first recorded speculative bubble in the history of economics.  Reasonable, why today when there is a crazed buying period in a market it is known as “Tulipmania”.

Tulip’s were originally imported from Turkey in the 1550s, but didn’t make their way into European hearts until the 17th century, when they started being grown by local  inhabitants.  As tulips became more and more popular in the Netherlands they became a sign of royalty, and from there it became necessity to have many different color combinations of the flowers.  The last recorded day before the price start, or start of the bubble where investors made the price soar to record highs, was November 12th, with the last day being May 1st, when prices returned to normal with a large amount of bankrupt traders.  Despite Tulipmania only last less then a year, its impacts at a profound affect only on the Netherlands at the time due to it not spreading very far away from there.

From a Dutch catalog in 1637.  On the right it says the price - between 3000 and 4200 flroins (depending on size).  In perspective the average skilled worker made arounnd 300 florins a year.

From a Dutch catalog in 1637. On the right it says the price - between 3000 and 4200 flroins (depending on size). In perspective the average skilled worker made arounnd 300 florins a year.

Tulipmania was spread in 2 possible ways, hierarchical diffusion and contagious diffusion.   Those with the most money could afford to buy the most tulips, and eventually they bought so many that it became a symbol of wealth and power.  The average man, always trying to improve social status, would see the tulip’s and want to buy them just like the wealthiest people of the time.  Contagious diffusion also could have been to blame for the spread of tulipmania due to the fact that those closest to the growers of the plants would get to see and want to buy the tulips and eventually it would spiral out from there.  UCLA professor Earl A. Thompson argued in 2007 that the price of tulip’s initially went up due to the government discussing talks of changing the way the contract worked between buyer and trader - so that if the market fell the buyer would not be penalized or hurt nearly as badly as before.  This is, according to professor Thompson, the reason why the bubble initially started, and the reason why it ended, because of the government stepping back in and halting the sale.  Besides this theory, there are no other ideas as to why Tulipmania started and stopped in the drastic way in which it did.

The idea of tulipmania did not change that incredible much in the 6 months that it lasted accept for the fact that the longer it went on the more extravagant and different the tulips had to be, trying to one up the last people who bought the popular flower. Iit was accepted by many people as a type of wealth and a symbol of power though only 3 groups really got their hands on it due to the fact that at the height of tulipmania it was worth more then a skilled workers yearly salary, these people are the growers, the traders, and the wealthy people who could afford buying the tulips.

With many traders going bankrupt in the frenzy and many people being financially hurt, it is interesting to know why the bubble initially started in the first place, but with the poor records from the time period, the answer may never be known.  What is known is that tulipmania was the first market bubble in recorded history, and the idea of it spread rapidly and disappeared just as fast as its onset.

Taoism: “The Way”

February2

The hearth of Taoism is China. It is difficult to define Taoist followers and is therefore also difficult to estimate the number of followers and where they live. In China, there are approximately 400,000 million people practicing Chinese folk religions. Worldwide, the range of Taoist believers is estimated between 20 and 50 million. Geographically, Taoism flourishes best in regions populated by Chinese people including mainland China, Singapore, Taiwan, and Malaysia. It is safe to say that Eastern Asia has been influenced by Taoism and most Taoists are concentrated in this area; however, there is a small population in the western hemisphere.

Taoism never really diffused out of China, but spread throughout China. Taoists leaders believe people should come to them if they want to convert over to Taoism and therefore, you will not see any Taoist missionaries.

This statue of the founder of Taoism, Lao Tzu, is located in the Quanzhou province of China. It was carved out of the stone of a mountain sometime during the 6th century.

This statue of the founder of Taoism, Lao Tzu, is located in the Quanzhou province of China on the sacred site of Mt. Qingyuan. It was carved out of the stone of a mountain sometime during the 6th century.

Taoism is a belief based on philosophy and thought more than the worship of deities. The Chinese word “tao” means “the way.” The religion itself was influenced by shamanistic and nature religions and is also therefore, polytheistic. Three main deities are worshipped and are referred to as the “Three Pure Gods” or “Three Purities.” The beginnings of Taoism date back to prehistoric times. There is no founding date, although analysts approximate it to be somewhere between 206 B.C.E. and 220 C.E. According to Livia Kohn, a professor of religion at Boston University, “Taoism as a religion began in the year 142 C.E. with the revelation of the Tao to Zhang Daoling or Chang Tao-ling by the personified god of the Tao, Taishang laojun (Lao Tzu), the Highest Venerable Lord.” After Zhang Daoling had this revelation, he became the first Celestial Master and founded the first Taoist school of thought. Taoism was recognized as a religion sometime between the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE. With the introduction of Tao Te Ching (Taoist scripture which was written by Lao Tzu), a focus was provided to guide Taoist thinking. It became a semi-official Chinese religion during the Tang dynasty. As Confucianism gained popularity, Taoism’s popularity decreased, and changed from an official religion to a widely practiced Chiense tradition.

These monks are celebrating a Taoist festival where sacrificial offerings may have been made.

These monks are celebrating a Taoist festival where sacrificial offerings may have been made. Traditional Taoist monks wear their hair in buns and the festival clothing is often extremely ornamental.

During the communist reign over China, the Taoists in the country were affected and were prevented from practicing their religion. This was ironic because Taoists believe that the best government is the government that doesn’t govern at all and lets the people live the way they choose. According to BBC, “Taoism was banned and its followers re-educated, with the result that the number of practicing Taoists fell by 99% in 10 years.” When the communistic reign loosened its grip on the country, a small measure of religious freedom was allowed. Taoism was once again practiced in China.

Contagious diffusion is seen with Taoism. Since the empire of China was so united under emperors, the entire country practiced extremely similar religions and believed similar things. Once Zhang Daoling founded Mount Qingcheng as the center of the empire, many other Chinese jumped on the bandwagon and became Taoists. Mount Qingcheng is still a place where many Taoists take pilgrimages. The sacred site of Mount Qingcheng is known for its mountains and sacrificial rivers. Since this religion is also extremely ethnic, Taoists can be found in many countries where Chinese have immigrated.

The religion has maintained its original concepts and it hasn’t diffused majorly around the world. The only thing that may have diffused worldwide is the symbol of yin and yang. Yin and yang represent balance in life between the negative and positive things. However, many Western cultures have simply adopted the symbol as a popular tattoo or simply an icon without knowing the meaning or Taoist background.

This table shows the different countries of Asia and which religions are most widely practiced in each area. Taoism is predominant in Chinese areas and Japan, as is Shintoism.

This table shows the different countries of Asia and which religions are most widely practiced in each area. Taoism is predominant in Chinese areas and Japan, as is Shintoism.

Many intellectual Chinese people are proponents and become followers of Taoism because of the deep roots in Chinese tradition, philosophy and values. The main objective of Taoism is to stay in harmony with the world, so many Taoists are extremely thoughtful and like to question the way of the world. Chinese who were not followers of Confucious might have also become Taoists since the two have one thing in common: they are schools of thought rather than worshipping religions.

Sunni Islam

February2

Sunni Islam is a monotheistic religion that is practiced by over 1.2 billion people worldwide. It involves worshipping the one almighty God (Allah), and following the teachings of the Holy Quran. The youngest of most of the major religions, the hearth was in Saudi Arabia in about 650 BC. Prophet Muhammad, the messenger of Islam, was sent to spread the word about Islam from revelations from Allah. People started to follow this new religion, and it spread from Africa all the way to Central Asia. By the time Prophet Muhammad passed away in the year 632, Islam was still spreading. Islam spread through contagious diffusion through different diffusion routes which was composed Spread of Islamprimarily of trade routes of the time. Although many people were accepting of Islam, many idol-worshippers vehemently rejected Islam, and several battles were fought over it. However, after Prophet Muhammad’s passing, there was a significant split over who should be the successor to him. Because of the disagreement, Islam split into two parts in that time: Sunni Islam and Shia Islam. Today, Shia Islam is based mainly in Iran, and only accounts for about 13% of all Muslims. Although they still believe in Allah and Prophet Muhammad, some of the things they do are different, such as prayer. Sunni Islam differs because they follow what was written in the Quran, and also the words and followings of Prophet Muhammad — called sunna. But, through all of that, the religion wasn’t affected during its spreading, because altering the religion is strictly prohibited in the Quran — so the words that are in the Quran today are the same as they were over 1300 years ago. One of the important and unique parts about Islam is the special pilgrimage, called Hajj. It takes place in Mecca, and millions of people flock there every year at the sacred site called the Kaaba. This is one of the prime symbols of Islam as well.

More recently, Islam has still been spreading through contagious diffusion, but there have been sources of distance decay. Many people have the wrong idea about Islam today because of the prominence of religious fundamentalism and religious extremism in tribal areas of Pakistan and Afghanistan. However, the religion continues to grow rapidly despite the factors that draw some people away from it.

Here is an example of a cultural landscape in Islam.

Southern Baptist

February2

The Southern Baptist denomination is a branch extending off from the main branch of Christian Baptist. Although the actual branch of Baptists originated in England around 1644 the branch of Southern Baptists did not come forth until much later. The monotheistic (one God) Baptist religion spread all over England due to the efforts of Thomas Helwys and John Smyth, and then spread to America with the help of Roger Williams who went there to escape religious persecution. In 1638, he established the First Baptist Church in America in Providence, Rhode Island. Then, by the mid 18th century the number of Baptists increased immensely as a result of the Great Awakening pioneered by Jonathan Edwards. And in 1755 Shubael Stearns began to spread his Baptist belief throughout North Carolina, leading to the creation and establishment of 42 churches in the North Carolina area. After that, throughout the late 1700’s and early 1800’s as Baptists began to organize and expand, they began to notice huge differences amongst themselves. These main differences lay mostly between location and the issue of slavery. They noticed social, cultural, economical, and political differences between the businessmen of the North, the farmers of the West, and the planters of the South. A lot of these differences then led to different interpretations of the Baptist religion, such as whether it was appropriate to have slaves or not. Because of this, the religion split into various sub-religions, one being the denomination of Southern Baptists. This denomination was created after a meeting in the hearth of Augusta, Georgia in May, 1845 by the Baptists in the South.

After the denomination was first formed, the Southern Baptists wanted to find a way to unite all the Baptist churches in the south, without affecting any local cultures. Even though this would be difficult, they

Baptism (one of the main beliefs)

Baptism (one of the main beliefs)

still continued to move toward the idea of an associational-type body until 1931. At the start of the Southern Baptist religion spreading, there was an amazing growth and expansion of their ministries. This huge growth last approximately until 1891, and was mainly due to the southern areas going from a Baptist region to a Southern Baptist region. Although the differences between these two religions were not huge, many people living in the south wanted to separate from northern beliefs, and this was one way how. The continual expansion went from areas within Georgia and its Baptist churches to other southern states’ Baptist churches, spreading amongst both congregations and slaves. After the Southern Baptist faith had fully spread all throughout the south, a lot of the churches focused on sending out missionaries and universalizing the religion. Places considered and later traveled to, were China, Africa, Italy, Mexico, Brazil, and Japan. Most of these countries now have a strengthening Christian influence, especially China. The main spread of Southern Baptism throughout the south only took about half a century, but the spread to other countries is still an ongoing process. By spreading through both ideas of separation from the north and missions trips, the faith of Southern Baptism spread all throughout the south and other parts of the world.

United States Southern Baptist Diffusion

United States Southern Baptist Diffusion

From about 1845 to 1861, the Southern Baptist religion spread throughout the south, and in 1861, the Baptist organization came to be identified with the South. It soon became the dominant religious denomination within the southern region. However, due to the separation from the original main Baptist religion, Southern Baptists could not really spread their religion to the north or west. This prevention kept the Southern Baptists and their religion in a confined area with little room to continual to spread. One major event that both helped spread the Southern Baptist religion as well as prevented its movement was the Civil War. The civil war unified the Southern region as its own “country” and therefore spread the Southern Baptist religion all throughout the region, unifying the region with the religion. However, due to previous and continual political and social problems with the north, the Southern Baptist religion was prevented from spreading to the north. Throughout the southern region, the Southern Baptist religion also spread to different segments of the population. It first spread to various churches throughout the south and their congregations, most were very accepting of the denomination. This spread of the religion was so accepted due to the strong desires to separate from the north. Then with the congregations accepting the Southern Baptist religion, masters started to convert their slaves. Even though a lot of slaves already respected and followed the Christian religion, they were not as willing to completely convert to Southern Baptists as their masters. Even with the fact they were less willing, the Southern Baptist religion still spread amongst slaves, and fully became the religion of the South.

Southern Baptist Church

Southern Baptist Church

Specifically with the diffusion of the Southern Baptist religion, it was quite a simple route. There was so much hatred towards the north, that the hatred then fueled the expansion of the Southern Baptist religion. The spread was mostly hierarchical and contagious. For contagious, at the beginning of the diffusion the religion spread from the churches in Augusta, Georgia near the place where the religion began to other local churches. Then for hierarchical, later, within some areas the religion spread from church to church and then diffused within those areas to the congregations and slaves. Other places out west like Nevada, Washington, and Alaska have small areas due to missionaries, but besides areas where missionaries went, like China, the Southern Baptist religion only diffused within the south of the United States. Throughout the south, the religion stayed pretty much the same in that, the region was so unified that the religion did not need to be altered to better fit their way of life or culture. However, once the religion left the south and diffused to the west and other countries, it was altered a little. The west did not have a slave problem, and therefore the whole background of the religion to them was altered to more of a Baptist religion than a Southern Baptist. Plus, when the Southern Baptist religion spread to various countries like Italy and China, the religion was altered so that the teachings were just basic Christianity instead of a sub-religion under Christianity. All in all, the diffusion of the Southern Baptist religion was contagious and hierarchical in the south, and from there, missionaries spread the religion to other places.

In summary, the Southern Baptist religion originally came from the Baptist religion of England. It did not actually become its own religion until a meeting in Augusta, Georgia in May of 1845. This religion then spread, for about a half a century, all throughout the southern part of the United States through hierarchical and contagious diffusion. It claimed both congregations and slaves as it followers throughout the spread. Even though the Civil War helped the spread of the Southern Baptist religion, it also hindered the spread and minimized the amount of places to which the religion could be further spread. With both the past and present help of missionaries the religion also diffused to and is spreading to the western states of the United States and other countries such as China and Mexico. Although the religion was actually diffused and spread to these places, it was also altered to general forms of original Baptist or even Christianity.

Here is an example of the cultural landscape of the Southern Baptist religion: Southern Baptist

Presbyterian

February2
Presbyterian Logo

Presbyterian Logo

The Presbyterian Church is one of the many forms of Christianity (a monotheistic religion), and the name Presbyterian is derived from the Greek word “presbýteros,” or “elder.”  Presbyterianism is the religion of a number of different Christian churches adhering to the Calvinist theological tradition within Protestantism, and organized according to a characteristic Presbyterian polity. Presbyterian theology typically emphasizes the sovereignty of God, the authority of the Scriptures, and the necessity of grace through faith in Christ.
The first forms of Prebyterianism are believed to have evolved in Scotland with roots that also go back to England. Modern Presbyterianism, though, have roots that go back to the 16th century and the Protestant Reformation. John Calvin (1509-1564), known as the father of Presbyterianism, was a French philosopher, lawyer and theologian who systematized and consolidated much of the Reformed thinking that came before him. John Knox, a priest born around 1513, converted to Protestantism in 1545 and studied under John Calvin in Geneva, Switzerland. He returned to his native Scotland in 1559 where he reformed the Church of Scotland and established the Presbyterian faith. Scottish settlers soon spread the Presbyterian faith to Northern Ireland. By the 17th century, it had spread throughout Europe, mainly through word of mouth and Presbyterianism became much more popular.

Presbyterianism is a form of contagious diffusion, mainly because it spread across a large amount of area in a relatively short amount of time. It was so appealing to followers because it was easy to understand, and had no complex practices. It is similar to Catholicism, but, at the same time, does not contain some of the Catholic beliefs that caused turmoil among followers throughout Europe. There were some minor changes to the religion as it spread, but all the the major foundations and beliefs remained constant.

Presbyterians as a Percentage of all Residents

Presbyterians as a Percentage of all Residents

Many people first joined the Presbyterian faith because of the split of churches in both England and Scotland. Followers were in such opposition to the churches of their country that they would do anything just to upset their government. Presbyterianism is now one of the most popular forms of Christianity and places of worship can be found in countries all over the world. Many churches or very plain because that is how the early followers wanted them to be.
Presbyterianism has gone through few changes over the course of its existence. Once the religion was universalized and brought to America, it became much more popular. It is a faith that will continue to grow and establish more

Presbyterian founder, John Knox

Presbyterian founder, John Knox

members over time.

Baptist

February2
John Smyth, the first Baptist minister

John Smyth, the first Baptist minister

The Baptist Church is the fifth largest Christian group in the world, with about 40 million members worldwide. Today, Baptists are mainly present in North America, Asia, Africa, and Latin America, with more than 50 different Baptist groups located in the US. The name “Baptist” comes from the act of immersing their believers in water. Even though Baptists can be traced back to the 1600’s, it wasn’t until the 19th century until they officially used the name “Baptist” to describe themselves.

In 1609, John Smyth, a Church of England minister, was the leader of the first Baptist Congregation in Holland. Smyth later questioned the beliefs of the religion, so his partner, Thomas Helwys, traveled to England in 1612 and created the first Baptist Church. In the 17th century, the Church of England helped to slow the spread of Baptism by calling them “nonconformists” or “Dissenters” for not agreeing with their beliefs.

The spread of Baptists throughout the United States

The spread of Baptists throughout the United States

Baptism spread through contagious diffusion. This happened during a big 19th century growth period in Europe, when famous pastors like Charles Haddon Spurgeon and Alexander Maclaren attracted many people. In the United States, Baptism was founded in 1639 by Roger Williams and John Clarke who each established a Baptist Church in Rhode Island. It contagiously spread from here throughout the country.

As a monotheistic religion, Baptism has altered in many ways, shapes, and forms. It originally split into two beliefs, General and Particular. In 1813, these two beliefs became one, known as the “General Union.” In America, 92% of Baptists are found within five major bodies, all with different intrafaith boundaries. Baptists of the world are represented by the Baptist World Alliance, which was founded in 1905.

This is an example of a modern day Baptist Church

This is an example of a modern day Baptist Church

Even though it is found all over the world, the Baptist religion is most common in the United States and Europe. Baptists are not animistic, and are often considered Evangelical and Protestant. Shaping the world’s cultural landscape with churches to worship in is a minor part of the religion. From the early Baptists in Holland to the millions of believers today, Baptists will continue to diffuse and be a big part of Christianity.

Here is an example of a Baptist Church in Bartlett, TN.

Jainism

February2

Jainism is an ancient religion that originated in India and is considered a dharmic religion. Not much about the early history of Jainism is known. Its roots can be traced back to 24 Jinas who lived in succession to one another, with the last living in circa 550 BCE. This Jina “Vardhamana” (also know as Mahavira) is said to be the founder of the Jain community.Said to have attained enlightenment after 13 years of deprivation eventually dying due to fasting until death this act is known as “salekhana”.

Statue of Vardhamana

Statue of Vardhamana

Jainism has followers world wide with approximately 5,200,000 followers concentrated in India and 100,000 within North America. Jainism started within the Northern India and until 3rd century BCE was passed from generation to generation through oral tradition. In the 3rd century BCE a religious council recorded and complied Jains teachings. Later during 5th century AD followers of Jainism began to move to southern parts of India. After monks had moved down to the south differences occurred between the north and the south. This led to a division between Jains two sects where formed, the Digambars, whose monks wear no clothing and the Svetambars, whose monks are clad in white robes. The monks from both sects wear a white cloth to stop them from accidentally inhaling insects due to their peace-loving attitudes towards all creatures.

Due to originating in the Later Vedic Period (around 600 BCE) Jainism was affected by the “Brahmin” or the “priestly caste” due to the fact that this was the ruling class at the time. When Vardhamana denounced the Brahmanical order due to Jainism being opposed to the caste system and the carrying out of sacrifices, The Brahmanical Hindu order tried to suppress the spread of Jainism but was unsuccessful to to the peaceful nature of the Jains.

Credit may be given to both hierarchical and contagious diffusion due to the fact that the spread of the religion started through the teachings of monks (hierarchical) but in recent times contagious diffusion may be prominent due to media and tools such as the internet. Jainism may not be viewed as being either monotheistic or polytheistic due to the fact that there are no gods present within the religion. Rather Jainism must be viewed as animistic due to the belief that every living being has a soul.

Jainism in an independent religion however due to the common cultural and linguistic background, Hindus and Buddhists are and were most accepting of this religion. Even though similar concepts are shared with the previous two religions i.e. “Karma”. Jainism is Independent and not a sect as is widely believed.

An example of Jain temples affecting the cultural landscape can be found here .

Jain temples Alter the cultural landscape by imprinting themselves through out the cities of India

Jain temples Alter the cultural landscape by imprinting themselves through out the cities of India

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